Publications

27/09/2022

Midpoint and endpoint characterization factors for mineral resource dissipation: methods and application to 6000 data sets

Auteurs : CHARPENTIER PONCELET, Alexandre LOUBET, Philippe HELBIG, Christoph BEYLOT, Antoine MULLER, Stéphanie VILLENEUVE, Jacques LARATTE, Bertrand THORENZ, Andrea TUMA, Axel SONNEMANN, Guido
Publisher : Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Abstract Purpose The accessibility to most metals is crucial to modern societies. In order to move towards more sustainable use of metals, it is relevant to reduce losses along their anthropogenic cycle. To this end, quantifying dissipative flows of mineral resources and assessing their impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) has been a challenge brought up by various stakeholders in the LCA community. We address this challenge with the extension of previously developed impact assessment methods and evaluating how these updated methods compare to widely used impact assessment methods for mineral resource use. Methods Building on previous works, we extend the coverage of the average dissipation rate (ADR) and lost potential service time (LPST) methods to 61 metals. Midpoint characterization factors are computed using dynamic material flow analysis results, and endpoint characterization factors, by applying the market price of metals as a proxy for their value. We apply these methods to metal resource flows from 6000 market data sets along with the abiotic depletion potential and ReCiPe 2016 methods to anticipate how the assessment of dissipation using the newly developed methods might compare to the latter two widely used ones. Results and discussion The updated midpoint methods enable distinguishing between 61 metals based on their global dissipation patterns once they have been extracted from the ground. The endpoint methods further allow differentiating between the value of metals based on their annual average market prices. Metals with a high price that dissipate quickly have the highest endpoint characterization factors. The application study shows that metals with the largest resource flows are expected to have the most impacts with the midpoint ADR and LPST methods, metals that are relatively more expensive have a greater relative contribution to the endpoint assessment. Conclusion The extended ADR and LPST methods provide new information on the global dissipation patterns of 61 metals and on the associated potentially lost value for humans. The methods are readily applicable to resource flows in current life cycle inventories. This new information may be complementary to that provided by other impact assessment methods addressing different impact pathways when used in LCA studies. Additional research is needed to improve the characterization of the value of metals for society and to extend the methods to more resources.
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27/09/2022

Effect of running speed on temporal and frequency indicators from wearable MEMS accelerometers

Auteurs : PROVOT, Thomas CHIEMENTIN, Xavier BOLAERS, Fabrice MURER, Sebastien
Publisher : Taylor and Francis Ltd
Amplified by the development of new technologies, the interest in personal performance has been growing over the last years. Acceleration has proved to be an easy variable to collect, and was addressed in several works. However, few of them evaluate the effect of running speed on relevant indicators. The influence of the sensors location on the measurement is rarely studied as well. This study is dedicated to investigating the effect of running speed on acceleration measured at three different positions on 18 volunteers. All participants were equipped with three inertial measurement units: on the dorsal surface of the right foot (Fo), at the centre of gravity of the tibia (Ti), at the L4-L5 lumbar (Lu). The test was performed on a treadmill at nine randomised speeds between 8 and 18 km/h. Ten accelerometric variables were calculated. Linear regressions were used to calculate speed from the indicators calculated on (Lu), (Ti), (Fo). Indicators associated to signal energy were highly correlated with speed ( r 2 > 0.90 ). Median frequency appears to be affected by the frequency resolution. Finally, the measurement points closest to the impact zone result in the most correlated indicators.
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27/09/2022

Influence of local geological data and geographical parameters to assess regional health impact in LCA. Tomsk oblast’, Russian Federation application case

Auteurs : BELYANOVSKAYA, Alexandra SOKTOEV, Bulat LARATTE, Bertrand AGEEVA, Elena BARANOVSKAYA, Natalia KOROGOD, Natalia
Publisher : Springer Science and Business Media LLC
The research paper is aimed to modify the human health impact assessment of Cr in soils. The current article presents the input of several critical parameters for the human health Impact Score ( IShum) assessment in soils. The modification of the IShum is derived using geological data — results of neutron activation analysis of soils are used in the IShum calculation; research area is divided using the watersheds and population size and density. Watersheds reflect the local environmental conditions of the territory unlike the administrative units (geographical areas of the studied region) due to their geological independence. The calculations of the characterization factor value underestimate the influence of the population size and density on the final result. Default characterization factor values cannot be considered during the assessment of the potential human health impact for the big sparsely inhabited areas. In case of very low population density, the result will be overrated and underestimated in the opposite case. The current approach demonstrates that the geographical separation in the USEtox model should be specified. The same approach can be utilized for other geo zones due to the accessibility of this information (area size, population size, and density, geological, and landscape features).
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27/09/2022

Piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems integrating microcontact printed lead zirconate titanate films

Auteurs : SAYA, Daisuke DEZEST, Denis WELSH, Aaron J MATHIEU, Fabrice THOMAS, Olivier LEÏCHLÉ, Thierry TROLIER-MCKINSTRY, Susan NICU, Liviu
Publisher : IOP Publishing
A piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) with integrated actuation and detection capabilities was fabricated using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by microcontact printing. PZT-coated cantilever resonators of various dimensions were fabricated to assess the variability in PZT properties as a function of the device dimensions; the microcontact-printed PZT was 281 nm thick. PZT layers of the cantilevers were poled at 107 kV cm−1 and 150 °C to improve their piezoelectric properties. It was demonstrated that PZT piezoelectrics can be utilized for simultaneous actuation and detection of resonance. The PZT cantilevers were analytically modelled to estimate values of their piezoelectric coefficient d31. Mechanical tip displacement detection of the cantilevers by laser vibrometer was also carried out to validate the estimation of d31.
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27/09/2022

A nonlinear piezoelectric shunt absorber with 2:1 internal resonance: experimental proof of concept

Auteurs : SHAMI, Zein Alabidin GIRAUD-AUDINE, Christophe THOMAS, Olivier
Publisher : IOP Publishing
An experimental proof of concept of a new semi-passive nonlinear piezoelectric shunt absorber, introduced theoretically in a companion article, is presented in this work. This absorber is obtained by connecting, through a piezoelectric transducer, an elastic structure to a resonant circuit that includes a quadratic nonlinearity. This nonlinearity is obtained by including in the circuit a voltage source proportional to the square of the voltage across the piezoelectric transducer, thanks to an analog multiplier circuit. Then, by tuning the electric resonance of the circuit to half the value of one of the resonances of the elastic structure, a two-to-one internal resonance is at hand. As a result, a strong energy transfer occurs from the mechanical mode to be attenuated to the electrical mode of the shunt, leading to two essential features: a nonlinear antiresonance in place of the mechanical resonance and an amplitude saturation. Namely, the amplitude of the elastic structure oscillations at the antiresonance becomes, above a given threshold, independent of the forcing level, contrary to a classical linear resonant shunt. This paper presents the experimental setup, the designed nonlinear shunt circuit and the main experimental results.
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27/09/2022

Stall Margin Improvement in an Axial Compressor by Continuous and Pulsed Tip Injection

Auteurs : MOUBOGHA MOUBOGHA, Joseph MARGALIDA, Gabriel JOSEPH, Pierric ROUSSETTE, Olivier DAZIN, Antoine
Publisher : MDPI AG
Stall and surge are strong limitations in the operating range of compressors and thus one of the major limits of jet engine performance. A promising way to push the stability limit of compression machines is to inject a small amount of flow at the blade tip to alter the physical mechanism responsible for stall onset. This study focuses on the experimental performance of such a system. To do so, an axial compressor test bench was equipped with 40 actuators connected to an auxiliary pressurised air supply system. They were able to generate high-speed jet blowing just at the tip of the rotor blades. The opening of each actuator was controlled by an electromagnetic valve. This allowed generating continuous or pulsed jets with frequencies up to 500 Hz at different duty cycles. The performance of the control system was investigated for various control strategies, where the injected flow rate, the injection angle, the number of injectors, the jet frequency and the duty cycle were systematically varied. This paper is concluded by a study of the energy balance of the system for various configurations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes a rarely seen analysis in the literature.
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27/09/2022

Nonlinear dynamics of coupled oscillators in 1:2 internal resonance: effects of the non-resonant quadratic terms and recovery of the saturation effect

Auteurs : SHAMI, Zein Alabidin SHEN, Yichang GIRAUD-AUDINE, Christophe TOUZÉ, Cyril THOMAS, Olivier
Publisher : Springer Science and Business Media LLC
This article considers the nonlinear dynamics of coupled oscillators featuring strong coupling in 1:2 internal resonance. In forced oscillations, this particular interaction is the source of energy exchange, leading to a particular shape of the response curves, as well as quasi-periodic responses and a saturation phenomenon. These main features are embedded in the simplest system which considers only the two resonant quadratic monomials conveying the 1:2 internal resonance, since they are the proeminent source allowing one to explain these phenomena. However, it has been shown recently that those features can be substantially modified by the presence of non-resonant quadratic terms. The aim of the present study is thus to explain the effect of the non-resonant quadratic terms on the dynamics. To that purpose, the normal form up to the third order is used, since the effect of the non-resonant quadratic terms will be transferred into the resonant cubic terms. Analytical solutions are detailed using a second-order mutliple scale expansion. A thorough investigation of the backbone curves, their stability and bifurcation, and the link to the forced–damped solutions, is detailed, showing in particular interesting features that had not been addressed in earlier studies. Finally, the saturation effect is investigated, and it is shown how to correct the detuning effect of the cubic terms thanks to a specific tuning of non-resonant quadratic terms and resonant cubic terms. This choice, derived analytically, is shown to extend the validity of the saturation effect to larger amplitudes, which can thus be used in all applications where this effect is needed e.g. for control.
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27/09/2022

A comparison of robustness and performance of linear and nonlinear Lanchester dampers

Auteurs : VAKILINEJAD, Mohammad GROLET, Aurélien THOMAS, Olivier
Publisher : Springer Science and Business Media LLC
In this paper, we study and compare performance and robustness of linear and nonlinear Lanchester dampers. The linear Lanchester damper consists of a small mass attached to a primary system through a linear dashpot, whereas the nonlinear Lanchester damper is linked to the primary mass through dry friction forces. In each case, we propose a semi-analytical method for computing the frequency response, for different values of the design parameters, in order to evaluate the performance and robustness of the two kinds of damper. Overall, it is shown that linear Lanchester dampers perform better than nonlinear damper both in terms of attenuation and robustness. Moreover, the nonlinear frequency response curves, that include the intrinsic non-smooth nature of the friction force, may serve as reference curve for further numerical studies.
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27/09/2022

Comparison of Reduction Methods for Finite Element Geometrically Nonlinear Beam Structures

Auteurs : SHEN, Yichang VIZZACCARO, Alessandra KESMIA, Nassim SALLES, Loïc THOMAS, Olivier TOUZÉ, Cyril
Publisher : MDPI AG
The aim of this contribution is to present numerical comparisons of model-order reduction methods for geometrically nonlinear structures in the general framework of finite element (FE) procedures. Three different methods are compared: the implicit condensation and expansion (ICE), the quadratic manifold computed from modal derivatives (MD), and the direct normal form (DNF) procedure, the latter expressing the reduced dynamics in an invariant-based span of the phase space. The methods are first presented in order to underline their common points and differences, highlighting in particular that ICE and MD use reduction subspaces that are not invariant. A simple analytical example is then used in order to analyze how the different treatments of quadratic nonlinearities by the three methods can affect the predictions. Finally, three beam examples are used to emphasize the ability of the methods to handle curvature (on a curved beam), 1:1 internal resonance (on a clamped-clamped beam with two polarizations), and inertia nonlinearity (on a cantilever beam).
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23/09/2022

Analysis of flow-induced performance change of cycloidal rotors: Influence of pitching kinematic and chord-to-radius ratio

Auteurs : SHI, Lei BAYEUL-LAINÉ, Annie-Claude COUTIER-DELGOSHA, Olivier
Publisher : Elsevier ltd
As a new type of the propulsive devices, cycloidal rotor has been attracting more attention recently. The present work concentrates on the analysis of the performance and internal flow field of a two-bladed cycloidal rotor operating at low Reynolds numbers, with special emphasis on understanding how the flow structure affects the performance at different working conditions. The symmetrical/asymmetrical pitching motions are evaluated initially and the primary results show that the asymmetrical pitching with a mean pitching angle of 5◦ improves the efficiency of the rotating system. Then, the effect of the chord-to-radius ratio at three different conditions is discussed, which shows that the chord-to-radius ratio of 0.45 is the best value to maximise the performance. The flow pattern, involving the blade-wake interaction, wake-wake interaction, three vortex structures on the blade surface, roll-up vortices inside the laminar boundary layer, separation bubble, leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex and flow separation vortex, are discussed in detail under various operating conditions. The study on the performance of a single blade, the forces (lift and drag) distributions, the blade loadings and the near-wall flows on two blades, provide a new understanding of the global performance change of the propeller.
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